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Emulation refers to the ability of a computer program or electronic device to imitate another program or device.
Emulating the GameBoy, is very useful when developing for it, so you can test your programs before writing them into a hardware developent system like flash carts or eproms. There are several GameBoy emulators out there running on many platforms, and some of them have also integrated debugging capabilities, very handy for development purposes.
Here's a list of some emulators you can use to test your code:
GameBoy Online (HTML5)
Lameboy DS for NDS
Goomba for GBA
Rin for PSP
TI-Boy SE for TI-83+ SE/TI-84