- 1 LCD Control Register
- 1.1 FF40 - LCDC - LCD Control (R/W)
- 1.1.1 LCDC.7 - LCD Display Enable
- 1.1.2 LCDC.6 - Window Tile Map Display Select
- 1.1.3 LCDC.5 - Window Display Enable
- 1.1.4 LCDC.4 - BG & Window Tile Data Select
- 1.1.5 LCDC.3 - BG Tile Map Display Select
- 1.1.6 LCDC.2 - OBJ Size
- 1.1.7 LCDC.1 - OBJ Display Enable
- 1.1.8 LCDC.0 - BG/Window Display/Priority
- 1.1 FF40 - LCDC - LCD Control (R/W)
- 2 LCD Status Register
- 3 LCD Interrupts
- 4 LCD Position and Scrolling
- 5 LCD Monochrome Palettes
- 6 LCD Color Palettes (CGB only)
- 7 LCD OAM DMA Transfers
- 8 LCD VRAM DMA Transfers (CGB only)
- 8.1 FF51 - HDMA1 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Source, High
- 8.2 FF52 - HDMA2 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Source, Low
- 8.3 FF53 - HDMA3 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Destination, High
- 8.4 FF54 - HDMA4 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Destination, Low
- 8.5 FF55 - HDMA5 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Length/Mode/Start
- 8.6 Precautions
- 8.7 Confirming if the DMA Transfer is Active
- 8.8 Transfer Timings
- 9 VRAM Tile Data
- 10 VRAM Background Maps
- 11 VRAM Banks (CGB only)
- 12 VRAM Sprite Attribute Table (OAM)
- 13 Accessing VRAM and OAM
LCD Control Register
FF40 - LCDC - LCD Control (R/W)
LCDC is special, because it can be written to during Mode 3 (while graphics are being drawn), and will affect display during the scanline !
This could be used for very complex video effects, but they will probably fail to render properly on most emulators. (They could be pretty sick though)
Bit 7 - LCD Display Enable (0=Off, 1=On) Bit 6 - Window Tile Map Display Select (0=9800-9BFF, 1=9C00-9FFF) Bit 5 - Window Display Enable (0=Off, 1=On) Bit 4 - BG & Window Tile Data Select (0=8800-97FF, 1=8000-8FFF) Bit 3 - BG Tile Map Display Select (0=9800-9BFF, 1=9C00-9FFF) Bit 2 - OBJ (Sprite) Size (0=8x8, 1=8x16) Bit 1 - OBJ (Sprite) Display Enable (0=Off, 1=On) Bit 0 - BG/Window Display/Priority (0=Off, 1=On)
LCDC.7 - LCD Display Enable
CAUTION: Stopping LCD operation (Bit 7 from 1 to 0) may be performed during V-Blank ONLY, disabling the display outside of the V-Blank period may damage the hardware by burning in a black horizontal line similar to that which appears when the GB is turned off. This appears to be a serious issue, Nintendo is reported to reject any games that do not follow this rule.
V-blank can be confirmed when the value of LY is greater than or equal to 144. When the display is disabled the screen is blank (white), and VRAM and OAM can be accessed freely.
When re-enabling the LCD, it will immediately start at LY = 0, meaning it will immediately start drawing. The first frame after the LCD is reenabled is completely white, though the LCD memory access pattern is as usual.
LCDC.6 - Window Tile Map Display Select
This bit controls which background map the Window uses for rendering. Note that the window will always use the "top-left" data, ie. the data you'd see at SCY = 0, SCX = 0, as its top-left point.
LCDC.5 - Window Display Enable
This bit controls whether the window shall be displayed or not. (TODO : what happens when toggling this mid-scanline ?)
Note that on CGB models, setting this bit to 0 then back to 1 mid-frame may cause the second write to be ignored. (TODO : test this.)
LCDC.4 - BG & Window Tile Data Select
This bit controls which addressing mode the BG and Window use to pick tiles. (See below for details on addressing modes).
LCDC.3 - BG Tile Map Display Select
This bit works similarly to bit 6 (explained above).
LCDC.2 - OBJ Size
This bit controls the sprite size (1 tile or 2 stacked vertically).
Be cautious when changing this mid-frame from 8x8 to 8x16 : "remnants" of the sprites intended for 8x8 could "leak" into the 8x16 zone and cause artifacts.
LCDC.1 - OBJ Display Enable
This bit toggles whether sprites are displayed or not. On DMG, this doesn't affect Mode 3 timings, just whether they are rendered or not; on CGB, timing is still affected.
This can be toggled mid-frame, for example to avoid sprites being displayed above a status bar or text box.
(Note: toggling mid-scanline might have funky results on DMG? Investigation needed.)
LCDC.0 - BG/Window Display/Priority
LCDC.0 has different meanings depending on Gameboy type and Mode:
Monochrome Gameboy, SGB and CGB in Non-CGB Mode: BG Display
When Bit 0 is cleared, both background and window become blank (white), ie. the Window Display Bit (Bit 5) is ignored in that case. Only Sprites may still be displayed (if enabled in Bit 1).
CGB in CGB Mode: BG and Window Master Priority
When Bit 0 is cleared, the background and window lose their priority - the sprites will be always displayed on top of background and window, independently of the priority flags in OAM and BG Map attributes.
LCD Status Register
FF41 - STAT - LCDC Status (R/W)
Bit 6 - LYC=LY Coincidence Interrupt (1=Enable) (Read/Write) Bit 5 - Mode 2 OAM Interrupt (1=Enable) (Read/Write) Bit 4 - Mode 1 V-Blank Interrupt (1=Enable) (Read/Write) Bit 3 - Mode 0 H-Blank Interrupt (1=Enable) (Read/Write) Bit 2 - Coincidence Flag (0:LYC<>LY, 1:LYC=LY) (Read Only) Bit 1-0 - Mode Flag (Mode 0-3, see below) (Read Only) 0: During H-Blank 1: During V-Blank 2: During Searching OAM 3: During Transferring Data to LCD Driver
The two lower STAT bits show the current status of the LCD controller.
Mode 0: The LCD controller is in the H-Blank period and the CPU can access both the display RAM (8000h-9FFFh) and OAM (FE00h-FE9Fh) Mode 1: The LCD controller is in the V-Blank period (or the display is disabled) and the CPU can access both the display RAM (8000h-9FFFh) and OAM (FE00h-FE9Fh) Mode 2: The LCD controller is reading from OAM memory. The CPU <cannot> access OAM memory (FE00h-FE9Fh) during this period. Mode 3: The LCD controller is reading from both OAM and VRAM, The CPU <cannot> access OAM and VRAM during this period. CGB Mode: Cannot access Palette Data (FF69,FF6B) either.
The following are typical when the display is enabled:
Mode 2 2_____2_____2_____2_____2_____2___________________2____ Mode 3 _33____33____33____33____33____33__________________3___ Mode 0 ___000___000___000___000___000___000________________000 Mode 1 ____________________________________11111111111111_____
The Mode Flag goes through the values 0, 2, and 3 at a cycle of about 109 μS. 0 is present about 48.6 μS, 2 about 19 μS, and 3 about 41 μS. This is interrupted every 16.6ms by the VBlank (1). The mode flag stays set at 1 for about 1.08 ms.
A complete cycle through these states takes 456 tstates. Mode 2 is present for 80 tstates, mode 3 about 170-240 tstates depending on where exactly the sprites, window, and fine scroll (SCX modulo 8) are positioned, and mode 0 for the rest of the scanline (up to 200 tstates). VBlank lasts 10 scanlines, or 4560 tstates. A complete screen refresh occurs every 154 lines, or 70224 tstates.)
A hardware bug in the monochrome Game Boy makes the LCD interrupt sometimes trigger when writing to STAT (including writing $00) during a H-Blank or V-Blank period.
INT 40 - V-Blank Interrupt
The V-Blank interrupt occurs ca. 59.7 times a second on a handheld Game Boy (DMG or CGB) or Game Boy Player and ca. 61.1 times a second on a Super Game Boy (SGB). This interrupt occurs at the beginning of the V-Blank period (LY=144). During this period video hardware is not using VRAM so it may be freely accessed. This period lasts approximately 1.1 milliseconds.
INT 48 - LCDC Status Interrupt
There are various reasons for this interrupt to occur as described by the STAT register ($FF40). One very popular reason is to indicate to the user when the video hardware is about to redraw a given LCD line. This can be useful for dynamically controlling the SCX/SCY registers ($FF43/$FF42) to perform special video effects.
Example application : set LYC to WY, enable LY=LYC interrupt, and have the handler disable sprites. This can be used if you use the window for a text box (at the bottom of the screen), and you want sprites to be hidden by the text box.
The interrupt is triggered when transitioning from "No conditions met" to "Any condition met", which can cause the interrupt to not fire. Example : the Mode 0 and LY=LYC interrupts are enabled ; since the latter triggers during Mode 2 (right after Mode 0), the interrupt will trigger for Mode 0 but fail to for LY=LYC.
LCD Position and Scrolling
These registers can be accessed even during Mode 3, but they have no effect until the end of the current scanline.
FF42 - SCY - Scroll Y (R/W), FF43 - SCX - Scroll X (R/W)
Specifies the position in the 256x256 pixels BG map (32x32 tiles) which is to be displayed at the upper/left LCD display position. Values in range from 0-255 may be used for X/Y each, the video controller automatically wraps back to the upper (left) position in BG map when drawing exceeds the lower (right) border of the BG map area.
FF44 - LY - LCDC Y-Coordinate (R)
The LY indicates the vertical line to which the present data is transferred to the LCD Driver. The LY can take on any value between 0 through 153. The values between 144 and 153 indicate the V-Blank period. Writing will reset the counter.
FF45 - LYC - LY Compare (R/W)
The Gameboy permanently compares the value of the LYC and LY registers. When both values are identical, the coincident bit in the STAT register becomes set, and (if enabled) a STAT interrupt is requested.
FF4A - WY - Window Y Position (R/W), FF4B - WX - Window X Position minus 7 (R/W)
Specifies the upper/left positions of the Window area. (The window is an alternate background area which can be displayed above of the normal background. OBJs (sprites) may be still displayed above or behind the window, just as for normal BG.)
The window becomes visible (if enabled) when positions are set in range WX=0..166, WY=0..143. A position of WX=7, WY=0 locates the window at upper left, it is then completely covering normal background.
WX values 0-6 and 166 are unreliable due to hardware bugs. If WX is set to 0, the window will "stutter" horizontally when SCX changes. (Depending on SCX modulo 8, behavior is a little complicated so you should try it yourself.)
LCD Monochrome Palettes
FF47 - BGP - BG Palette Data (R/W) - Non CGB Mode Only
This register assigns gray shades to the color numbers of the BG and Window tiles.
Bit 7-6 - Shade for Color Number 3 Bit 5-4 - Shade for Color Number 2 Bit 3-2 - Shade for Color Number 1 Bit 1-0 - Shade for Color Number 0
The four possible gray shades are:
0 White 1 Light gray 2 Dark gray 3 Black
In CGB Mode the Color Palettes are taken from CGB Palette Memory instead.
FF48 - OBP0 - Object Palette 0 Data (R/W) - Non CGB Mode Only
This register assigns gray shades for sprite palette 0. It works exactly as BGP (FF47), except that the lower two bits aren't used because sprite data 00 is transparent.
FF49 - OBP1 - Object Palette 1 Data (R/W) - Non CGB Mode Only
This register assigns gray shades for sprite palette 1. It works exactly as BGP (FF47), except that the lower two bits aren't used because sprite data 00 is transparent.
LCD Color Palettes (CGB only)
FF68 - BCPS/BGPI - CGB Mode Only - Background Palette Index
This register is used to address a byte in the CGBs Background Palette Memory. Each two byte in that memory define a color value. The first 8 bytes define Color 0-3 of Palette 0 (BGP0), and so on for BGP1-7.
Bit 0-5 Index (00-3F) Bit 7 Auto Increment (0=Disabled, 1=Increment after Writing)
Data can be read/written to/from the specified index address through Register FF69. When the Auto Increment bit is set then the index is automatically incremented after each <write> to FF69. Auto Increment has no effect when <reading> from FF69, so the index must be manually incremented in that case.
Unlike the following, this register can be accessed outside V-Blank and H-Blank.
FF69 - BCPD/BGPD - CGB Mode Only - Background Palette Data
This register allows to read/write data to the CGBs Background Palette Memory, addressed through Register FF68. Each color is defined by two bytes (Bit 0-7 in first byte).
Bit 0-4 Red Intensity (00-1F) Bit 5-9 Green Intensity (00-1F) Bit 10-14 Blue Intensity (00-1F)
Much like VRAM, data in Palette Memory cannot be read/written during the time when the LCD Controller is reading from it. (That is when the STAT register indicates Mode 3). Note: All background colors are initialized as white by the boot ROM, but it's a good idea to initialize at least one color yourself (for example if you include a soft-reset mechanic).
FF6A - OCPS/OBPI - CGB Mode Only - Sprite Palette Index, FF6B - OCPD/OBPD - CGB Mode Only - Sprite Palette Data
These registers are used to initialize the Sprite Palettes OBP0-7, identically as described above for Background Palettes. Note that four colors may be defined for each OBP Palettes - but only Color 1-3 of each Sprite Palette can be displayed, Color 0 is always transparent, and can be initialized to a don't care value or plain never initialized.
Note: All sprite colors are left uninitialized by the boot ROM, and are somewhat random.
RGB Translation by CGBs
When developing graphics on PCs, note that the RGB values will have different appearance on CGB displays as on VGA/HDMI monitors calibrated to sRGB color. Because the GBC is not lit, the highest intensity will produce Light Gray color rather than White. The intensities are not linear; the values 10h-1Fh will all appear very bright, while medium and darker colors are ranged at 00h-0Fh.
The CGB display's pigments aren't perfectly saturated. This means the colors mix quite oddly; increasing intensity of only one R,G,B color will also influence the other two R,G,B colors. For example, a color setting of 03EFh (Blue=0, Green=1Fh, Red=0Fh) will appear as Neon Green on VGA displays, but on the CGB it'll produce a decently washed out Yellow. See image on the right.
RGB Translation by GBAs
Even though GBA is described to be compatible to CGB games, most CGB games are completely unplayable on older GBAs because most colors are invisible (black). Of course, colors such like Black and White will appear the same on both CGB and GBA, but medium intensities are arranged completely different. Intensities in range 00h..07h are invisible/black (unless eventually under best sunlight circumstances, and when gazing at the screen under obscure viewing angles), unfortunately, these intensities are regularly used by most existing CGB games for medium and darker colors.
Newer CGB games may avoid this effect by changing palette data when detecting GBA hardware (see how). Based on measurement of GBC and GBA palettes using the "144p Test Suite" ROM, a fairly close approximation is GBA = GBC * 3/4 + 8h for each R,G,B intensity. The result isn't quite perfect, and it may turn out that the color mixing is different also; anyways, it'd be still ways better than no conversion. Asides, this translation method should have been VERY easy to implement in GBA hardware directly, even though Nintendo obviously failed to do so. How did they say, "This seal is your assurance for excellence in workmanship" and so on?
This problem with low brightness levels does not affect later GBA SP units and Game Boy Player. Thus ideally, the player should have control of this brightness correction.
LCD OAM DMA Transfers
FF46 - DMA - DMA Transfer and Start Address (R/W)
Writing to this register launches a DMA transfer from ROM or RAM to OAM memory (sprite attribute table). The written value specifies the transfer source address divided by 100h, ie. source & destination are:
Source: XX00-XX9F ;XX in range from 00-F1h Destination: FE00-FE9F
The transfer takes 160 machine cycles: 152 microseconds in normal speed or 76 microseconds in CGB Double Speed Mode. On DMG, during this time, the CPU can access only HRAM (memory at FF80-FFFE); on CGB, the bus used by the source area cannot be used (this isn't understood well at the moment, it's recommended to assume same behavior as DMG). For this reason, the programmer must copy a short procedure into HRAM, and use this procedure to start the transfer from inside HRAM, and wait until the transfer has finished:
run_dma: ld a, start address / 100h ldh (FF46h),a ;start DMA transfer (starts right after instruction) ld a,28h ;delay... wait: ;total 4x40 cycles, approx 160 μs dec a ;1 cycle jr nz,wait ;3 cycles ret
Because sprites are not displayed while OAM DMA is in progress, most programs are executing this procedure from inside of their VBlank procedure. But it is also possible to execute it during display redraw also, allowing to display more than 40 sprites on the screen (ie. for example 40 sprites in upper half, and other 40 sprites in lower half of the screen), at the cost of a couple lines that lack sprites.
A more compact procedure is
run_dma: ; This part is in ROM ld a, start address / 100h ld bc, 2946h ; B: wait time; C: OAM trigger jp run_dma_hrampart
run_dma_hrampart: ldh ($FF00+c), a wait: dec b jr nz,wait ret
which should be called with a = start address / 100h, bc = 2946h. This saves 5 bytes of HRAM, but is slightly slower in most cases because of the jump into the HRAM part.
LCD VRAM DMA Transfers (CGB only)
FF51 - HDMA1 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Source, High
FF52 - HDMA2 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Source, Low
These two registers specify the address at which the transfer will read data from. Normally, this should be either in ROM, SRAM or WRAM, thus either in range 0000-7FF0 or A000-DFF0. [Note : this has yet to be tested on Echo RAM, OAM, FEXX, IO and HRAM]. Trying to specify a source address in VRAM will cause garbage to be copied.
The four lower bits of this address will be ignored and treated as 0.
FF53 - HDMA3 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Destination, High
FF54 - HDMA4 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Destination, Low
These two registers specify the address within 8000-9FF0 to which the data will be copied. Only bits 12-4 are respected; others are ignored. The four lower bits of this address will be ignored and treated as 0.
FF55 - HDMA5 - CGB Mode Only - New DMA Length/Mode/Start
These registers are used to initiate a DMA transfer from ROM or RAM to VRAM. The Source Start Address may be located at 0000-7FF0 or A000-DFF0, the lower four bits of the address are ignored (treated as zero). The Destination Start Address may be located at 8000-9FF0, the lower four bits of the address are ignored (treated as zero), the upper 3 bits are ignored either (destination is always in VRAM).
Writing to this register starts the transfer, the lower 7 bits of which specify the Transfer Length (divided by 10h, minus 1), ie. lengths of 10h-800h bytes can be defined by the values 00h-7Fh. The upper bit indicates the Transfer Mode:
Bit7=0 - General Purpose DMA
When using this transfer method, all data is transferred at once. The execution of the program is halted until the transfer has completed. Note that the General Purpose DMA blindly attempts to copy the data, even if the LCD controller is currently accessing VRAM. So General Purpose DMA should be used only if the Display is disabled, or during V-Blank, or (for rather short blocks) during H-Blank. The execution of the program continues when the transfer has been completed, and FF55 then contains a value of FFh.
Bit7=1 - H-Blank DMA
The H-Blank DMA transfers 10h bytes of data during each H-Blank, ie. at LY=0-143, no data is transferred during V-Blank (LY=144-153), but the transfer will then continue at LY=00. The execution of the program is halted during the separate transfers, but the program execution continues during the 'spaces' between each data block. Note that the program should not change the Destination VRAM bank (FF4F), or the Source ROM/RAM bank (in case data is transferred from bankable memory) until the transfer has completed! (The transfer should be paused as described below while the banks are switched)
Reading from Register FF55 returns the remaining length (divided by 10h, minus 1), a value of 0FFh indicates that the transfer has completed. It is also possible to terminate an active H-Blank transfer by writing zero to Bit 7 of FF55. In that case reading from FF55 will return how many $10 "blocks" remained (minus 1) in the lower 7 bits, but Bit 7 will be read as "1". Stopping the transfer doesn't set HDMA1-4 to $FF.
H-Blank DMA should not be started (write to FF55) during a H-Blank period (STAT mode 0).
If the transfer's destination address overflows, the transfer stops prematurely. [Note : what's the state of the registers if this happens ?]
Confirming if the DMA Transfer is Active
Reading Bit 7 of FF55 can be used to confirm if the DMA transfer is active (1=Not Active, 0=Active). This works under any circumstances - after completion of General Purpose, or H-Blank Transfer, and after manually terminating a H-Blank Transfer.
In both Normal Speed and Double Speed Mode it takes about 8 μs to transfer a block of 10h bytes. That are 8 tstates in Normal Speed Mode, and 16 'fast' tstates in Double Speed Mode. Older MBC controllers (like MBC1-4) and slower ROMs are not guaranteed to support General Purpose or H-Blank DMA, that's because there are always 2 bytes transferred per microsecond (even if the itself program runs it Normal Speed Mode).
VRAM Tile Data
Tile Data is stored in VRAM at addresses $8000-97FF; with one tile being 16 bytes large, this area defines data for 384 Tiles. In CGB Mode, this is doubled (768 tiles) because of the two VRAM banks.
Each tile is sized 8x8 pixels and has a color depth of 4 colors/gray shades. Tiles can be displayed as part of the Background/Window map, and/or as OAM tiles (foreground sprites). Note that foreground sprites don't use color 0 - it's transparent instead.
There are three "blocks" of 128 tiles each:
- Block 0 is $8000-87FF
- Block 1 is $8800-8FFF
- Block 2 is $9000-97FF
Tiles are always indexed using a 8-bit integer, but the addressing method may differ. The "8000 method" uses $8000 as its base pointer and uses an unsigned addressing, meaning that tiles 0-127 are in block 0, and tiles 128-255 are in block 1. The "8800 method" uses $9000 as its base pointer and uses a signed addressing. To put it differently, "8000 addressing" takes tiles 0-127 from block 0 and tiles 128-255 from block 1, whereas "8800 addressing" takes tiles 0-127 from block 2 and tiles 128-255 from block 1. (You can notice that block 1 is shared by both addressing methods)
Sprites always use 8000 addressing, but the BG and Window can use either mode, controlled by LCDC bit 4.
Each Tile occupies 16 bytes, where each 2 bytes represent a line:
Byte 0-1 First Line (Upper 8 pixels) Byte 2-3 Next Line etc.
For each line, the first byte defines the least significant bits of the color numbers for each pixel, and the second byte defines the upper bits of the color numbers. In either case, Bit 7 is the leftmost pixel, and Bit 0 the rightmost. For example : let's say you have $57 $36 (in this order in memory). To obtain the color index for the leftmost pixel, you take bit 7 of both bytes : 0, and 0. Thus the index is 00b = 0. For the second pixel, repeat with bit 6 : 1, and 0. Thus the index is 01b = 1 (remember to flip the order of the bits !). If you repeat the operation you'll find that the indexes for the 8 pixels are 0 1 2 3 0 3 3 1.
So, each pixel is having a color number in range from 0-3. The color numbers are translated into real colors (or gray shades) depending on the current palettes. The palettes are defined through registers BGP, OBP0 and OBP1 (Non CGB Mode), and BCPS/BGPI, BCPD/BGPD, OCPS/OBPI and OCPD/OBPD (CGB Mode).
VRAM Background Maps
The Game Boy contains two 32x32 tile background maps in VRAM at addresses 9800h-9BFFh and 9C00h-9FFFh. Each can be used either to display "normal" background, or "window" background.
BG Map Tile Numbers
An area of VRAM known as Background Tile Map contains the numbers of tiles to be displayed. It is organized as 32 rows of 32 bytes each. Each byte contains a number of a tile to be displayed.
Tile patterns are taken from the Tile Data Table using either of the two addressing modes (described above), which can be selected via LCDC register.
As one background tile has a size of 8x8 pixels, the BG maps may hold a picture of 256x256 pixels, and an area of 160x144 pixels of this picture can be displayed on the LCD screen.
BG Map Attributes (CGB Mode only)
In CGB Mode, an additional map of 32x32 bytes is stored in VRAM Bank 1 (each byte defines attributes for the corresponding tile-number map entry in VRAM Bank 0, ie. 1:9800 defines the attributes for the tile at 0:9800):
Bit 0-2 Background Palette number (BGP0-7) Bit 3 Tile VRAM Bank number (0=Bank 0, 1=Bank 1) Bit 4 Not used Bit 5 Horizontal Flip (0=Normal, 1=Mirror horizontally) Bit 6 Vertical Flip (0=Normal, 1=Mirror vertically) Bit 7 BG-to-OAM Priority (0=Use OAM priority bit, 1=BG Priority)
When Bit 7 is set, the corresponding BG tile will have priority above all OBJs (regardless of the priority bits in OAM memory). There's also a Master Priority flag in LCDC register Bit 0 which overrides all other priority bits when cleared.
Note that, if the map entry at 0:9800 is tile $2A, the attribute at 1:9800 doesn't define properties for ALL tiles $2A on-screen, but only the one at 0:9800 !
Normal Background (BG)
The SCY and SCX registers can be used to scroll the background, allowing to select the origin of the visible 160x144 pixel area within the total 256x256 pixel background map. Background wraps around the screen (i.e. when part of it goes off the screen, it appears on the opposite side.)
Besides background, there is also a "window" overlaying the background. The window is not scrollable, that is, it is always displayed starting from its left upper corner. The location of a window on the screen can be adjusted via WX and WY registers. Screen coordinates of the top left corner of a window are WX-7,WY. The tiles for the window are stored in the Tile Data Table. Both the Background and the window share the same Tile Data Table.
Both background and window can be disabled or enabled separately via bits in the LCDC register.
VRAM Banks (CGB only)
The CGB has twice the VRAM of the DMG, but it is banked and either bank has a different purpose.
FF4F - VBK - CGB Mode Only - VRAM Bank (R/W)
This register can be written to to change VRAM banks. Only bit 0 matters, all other bits are ignored.
VRAM bank 1
VRAM bank 1 is split like VRAM bank 0 ; 8000-97FF also stores tiles (just like in bank 0), which can be accessed the same way as (and at the same time as) bank 0 tiles. 9800-9FFF contains the attributes for the corresponding Tile Maps.
Reading from this register will return the number of the currently loaded VRAM bank in bit 0, and all other bits will be set to 1.
VRAM Sprite Attribute Table (OAM)
Gameboy video controller can display up to 40 sprites either in 8x8 or in 8x16 pixels. Because of a limitation of hardware, only ten sprites can be displayed per scan line. Sprite patterns have the same format as BG tiles, but they are taken from the Sprite Pattern Table located at $8000-8FFF and have unsigned numbering.
Sprite attributes reside in the Sprite Attribute Table (OAM - Object Attribute Memory) at $FE00-FE9F. Each of the 40 entries consists of four bytes with the following meanings:
Byte0 - Y Position
Specifies the sprites vertical position on the screen (minus 16). An off-screen value (for example, Y=0 or Y>=160) hides the sprite.
Byte1 - X Position
Specifies the sprites horizontal position on the screen (minus 8). An off-screen value (X=0 or X>=168) hides the sprite, but the sprite still affects the priority ordering - a better way to hide a sprite is to set its Y-coordinate off-screen.
Byte2 - Tile/Pattern Number
Specifies the sprites Tile Number (00-FF). This (unsigned) value selects a tile from memory at 8000h-8FFFh. In CGB Mode this could be either in VRAM Bank 0 or 1, depending on Bit 3 of the following byte. In 8x16 mode, the lower bit of the tile number is ignored. IE: the upper 8x8 tile is "NN AND FEh", and the lower 8x8 tile is "NN OR 01h".
Byte3 - Attributes/Flags:
Bit7 OBJ-to-BG Priority (0=OBJ Above BG, 1=OBJ Behind BG color 1-3) (Used for both BG and Window. BG color 0 is always behind OBJ) Bit6 Y flip (0=Normal, 1=Vertically mirrored) Bit5 X flip (0=Normal, 1=Horizontally mirrored) Bit4 Palette number **Non CGB Mode Only** (0=OBP0, 1=OBP1) Bit3 Tile VRAM-Bank **CGB Mode Only** (0=Bank 0, 1=Bank 1) Bit2-0 Palette number **CGB Mode Only** (OBP0-7)
Sprite Priorities and Conflicts
When sprites overlap, the highest priority one will appear above all others, etc. (Thus, no Z-fighting.) In CGB mode, the first sprite in OAM ($FE00-$FE03) has the highest priority, and so on. In Non-CGB mode, the smaller the X coordinate, the higher the priority. The tie breaker (same X coordinates) is the same priority as in CGB mode.
Only 10 sprites can be displayed on any one line. When this limit is exceeded, the lower sprites (in their order in OAM, $FE00-$FE03 being the highest) won't be displayed. To keep unused sprites from affecting onscreen sprites, set their Y coordinate to Y = 0 or Y => 160 (144 + 16) (Note : Y <= 8 also works if sprite size is set to 8x8). Just setting the X coordinate to X = 0 or X => 168 (160 + 8) on a sprite will hide it, but it will still affect other sprites sharing the same lines.
If using BGB, in the VRAM viewer - OAM tab, hover your mouse over the small screen to highlight the sprites on a line. Sprites hidden due to the limitation will be highlighted in red.
Writing Data to OAM Memory
The recommended method is to write the data to normal RAM first, and to copy that RAM to OAM by using the DMA transfer function, initiated through DMA register (FF46). Beside for that, it is also possible to write data directly to the OAM area by using normal LD commands, this works only during the H-Blank and V-Blank periods. The current state of the LCD controller can be read out from the STAT register (FF41).
Accessing VRAM and OAM
When the LCD Controller is drawing the screen it is directly reading from Video Memory (VRAM) and from the Sprite Attribute Table (OAM). During these periods the Gameboy CPU may not access the VRAM and OAM. That means, any attempts to write to VRAM/OAM are ignored (the data remains unchanged). And any attempts to read from VRAM/OAM will return undefined data (typically a value of FFh).
For this reason the program should verify if VRAM/OAM is accessible before actually reading or writing to it. This is usually done by reading the Mode Bits from the STAT Register (FF41). When doing this (as described in the examples below) you should take care that no interrupts occur between the wait loops and the following memory access - the memory is guaranteed to be accessible only for a few cycles directly after the wait loops have completed.
VRAM (memory at 8000h-9FFFh) is accessible during Mode 0-2
Mode 0 - H-Blank Period, Mode 1 - V-Blank Period, and Mode 2 - Searching OAM Period
A typical procedure that waits for accessibility of VRAM would be:
ld hl,0FF41h ;-STAT Register @@wait: ;\ bit 1,(hl) ; Wait until Mode is 0 or 1 jr nz,@@wait ;/
Even if the procedure gets executed at the <end> of Mode 0 or 1, it is still proof to assume that VRAM can be accessed for a few more cycles because in either case the following period is Mode 2 which allows access to VRAM either. However, be careful about STAT LCD interrupts or other interrupts that could cause the LCD to be back in mode 3 by the time it returns. In CGB Mode an alternate method to write data to VRAM is to use the HDMA Function (FF51-FF55).
OAM (memory at FE00h-FE9Fh) is accessible during Mode 0-1
Mode 0 - H-Blank Period Mode 1 - V-Blank Period
Aside from that, OAM can be accessed at any time by using the DMA Function (FF46). When directly reading or writing to OAM, a typical procedure that waits for accessibility of OAM Memory would be:
ld hl,0FF41h ;-STAT Register @@wait1: ;\ bit 1,(hl) ; Wait until Mode is -NOT- 0 or 1 jr z,@@wait1 ;/ @@wait2: ;\ bit 1,(hl) ; Wait until Mode 0 or 1 -BEGINS- jr nz,@@wait2 ;/
The two wait loops ensure that Mode 0 or 1 will last for a few clock cycles after completion of the procedure. In V-Blank period it might be recommended to skip the whole procedure - and in most cases using the above mentioned DMA function would be more recommended anyways.
When the display is disabled, both VRAM and OAM are accessible at any time. The downside is that the screen is blank (white) during this period, so that disabling the display would be recommended only during initialization.