Memory Bank Controllers

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As the gameboys 16 bit address bus offers only limited space for ROM and RAM addressing, many games are using Memory Bank Controllers (MBCs) to expand the available address space by bank switching. These MBC chips are located in the game cartridge (ie. not in the gameboy itself).

In each cartridge, the required (or preferred) MBC type should be specified in the byte at 0147h of the ROM, as described in the cartridge header. Several different MBC types are available:


None (32KByte ROM only)

Small games of not more than 32KBytes ROM do not require a MBC chip for ROM banking. The ROM is directly mapped to memory at 0000-7FFFh. Optionally up to 8KByte of RAM could be connected at A000-BFFF, even though that could require a tiny MBC-like circuit, but no real MBC chip.

MBC1 (max 2MByte ROM and/or 32KByte RAM)

This is the first MBC chip for the gameboy. Any newer MBC chips are working similiar, so that is relative easy to upgrade a program from one MBC chip to another - or even to make it compatible to several different types of MBCs.

Note that the memory in range 0000-7FFF is used for both reading from ROM, and for writing to the MBCs Control Registers.

0000-3FFF - ROM Bank 00 (Read Only)

This area always contains the first 16KBytes of the cartridge ROM.

4000-7FFF - ROM Bank 01-7F (Read Only)

This area may contain any of the further 16KByte banks of the ROM, allowing to address up to 125 ROM Banks (almost 2MByte). As described below, bank numbers 20h, 40h, and 60h cannot be used, resulting in the odd amount of 125 banks.

A000-BFFF - RAM Bank 00-03, if any (Read/Write)

This area is used to address external RAM in the cartridge (if any). External RAM is often battery buffered, allowing to store game positions or high score tables, even if the gameboy is turned off, or if the cartridge is removed from the gameboy. Available RAM sizes are: 2KByte (at A000-A7FF), 8KByte (at A000-BFFF), and 32KByte (in form of four 8K banks at A000-BFFF).

0000-1FFF - RAM Enable (Write Only)

Before external RAM can be read or written, it must be enabled by writing to this address space. It is recommended to disable external RAM after accessing it, in order to protect its contents from damage during power down of the gameboy. Usually the following values are used:

 00h  Disable RAM (default)
 0Ah  Enable RAM

Practically any value with 0Ah in the lower 4 bits enables RAM, and any other value disables RAM.

2000-3FFF - ROM Bank Number (Write Only)

Writing to this address space selects the lower 5 bits of the ROM Bank Number (in range 01-1Fh). When 00h is written, the MBC translates that to bank 01h also. That doesn't harm so far, because ROM Bank 00h can be always directly accessed by reading from 0000-3FFF. But (when using the register below to specify the upper ROM Bank bits), the same happens for Bank 20h, 40h, and 60h. Any attempt to address these ROM Banks will select Bank 21h, 41h, and 61h instead.

4000-5FFF - RAM Bank Number - or - Upper Bits of ROM Bank Number (Write Only)

This 2bit register can be used to select a RAM Bank in range from 00-03h, or to specify the upper two bits (Bit 5-6) of the ROM Bank number, depending on the current ROM/RAM Mode. (See below.)

6000-7FFF - ROM/RAM Mode Select (Write Only)

This 1bit Register selects whether the two bits of the above register should be used as upper two bits of the ROM Bank, or as RAM Bank Number.

 00h = ROM Banking Mode (up to 8KByte RAM, 2MByte ROM) (default)
 01h = RAM Banking Mode (up to 32KByte RAM, 512KByte ROM)

The program may freely switch between both modes, the only limitiation is that only RAM Bank 00h can be used during Mode 0, and only ROM Banks 00-1Fh can be used during Mode 1.

MBC2 (max 256KByte ROM and 512x4 bits RAM)

0000-3FFF - ROM Bank 00 (Read Only)

Same as for MBC1.

4000-7FFF - ROM Bank 01-0F (Read Only)

Same as for MBC1, but only a total of 16 ROM banks is supported.

A000-A1FF - 512x4bits RAM, built-in into the MBC2 chip (Read/Write)

The MBC2 doesn't support external RAM, instead it includes 512x4 bits of built-in RAM (in the MBC2 chip itself). It still requires an external battery to save data during power-off though. As the data consists of 4bit values, only the lower 4 bits of the "bytes" in this memory area are used.

0000-1FFF - RAM Enable (Write Only)

The least significant bit of the upper address byte must be zero to enable/disable cart RAM. For example the following addresses can be used to enable/disable cart RAM: 0000-00FF, 0200-02FF, 0400-04FF, ..., 1E00-1EFF. The suggested address range to use for MBC2 ram enable/disable is 0000-00FF.

2000-3FFF - ROM Bank Number (Write Only)

Writing a value (XXXXBBBB - X = Don't cares, B = bank select bits) into 2000-3FFF area will select an appropriate ROM bank at 4000-7FFF.

The least significant bit of the upper address byte must be one to select a ROM bank. For example the following addresses can be used to select a ROM bank: 2100-21FF, 2300-23FF, 2500-25FF, ..., 3F00-3FFF. The suggested address range to use for MBC2 rom bank selection is 2100-21FF.

MBC3 (max 2MByte ROM and/or 64KByte RAM and Timer)

Beside for the ability to access up to 2MB ROM (128 banks), and 64KB RAM (8 banks), the MBC3 also includes a built-in Real Time Clock (RTC). The RTC requires an external 32.768 kHz Quartz Oscillator, and an external battery (if it should continue to tick when the gameboy is turned off).

0000-3FFF - ROM Bank 00 (Read Only)

Same as for MBC1.

4000-7FFF - ROM Bank 01-7F (Read Only)

Same as for MBC1, except that accessing banks 20h, 40h, and 60h is supported now.

A000-BFFF - RAM Bank 00-03, if any (Read/Write)

A000-BFFF - RTC Register 08-0C (Read/Write)

Depending on the current Bank Number/RTC Register selection (see below), this memory space is used to access an 8KByte external RAM Bank, or a single RTC Register.

0000-1FFF - RAM and Timer Enable (Write Only)

Mostly the same as for MBC1, a value of 0Ah will enable reading and writing to external RAM - and to the RTC Registers! A value of 00h will disable either.

2000-3FFF - ROM Bank Number (Write Only)

Same as for MBC1, except that the whole 7 bits of the RAM Bank Number are written directly to this address. As for the MBC1, writing a value of 00h, will select Bank 01h instead. All other values 01-7Fh select the corresponding ROM Banks.

4000-5FFF - RAM Bank Number - or - RTC Register Select (Write Only)

As for the MBC1s RAM Banking Mode, writing a value in range for 00h-07h maps the corresponding external RAM Bank (if any) into memory at A000-BFFF. When writing a value of 08h-0Ch, this will map the corresponding RTC register into memory at A000-BFFF. That register could then be read/written by accessing any address in that area, typically that is done by using address A000.

6000-7FFF - Latch Clock Data (Write Only)

When writing 00h, and then 01h to this register, the current time becomes latched into the RTC registers. The latched data will not change until it becomes latched again, by repeating the write 00h->01h procedure. This is supposed for <reading> from the RTC registers. This can be proven by reading the latched (frozen) time from the RTC registers, and then unlatch the registers to show the clock itself continues to tick in background.

The Clock Counter Registers

 08h  RTC S   Seconds   0-59 (0-3Bh)
 09h  RTC M   Minutes   0-59 (0-3Bh)
 0Ah  RTC H   Hours     0-23 (0-17h)
 0Bh  RTC DL  Lower 8 bits of Day Counter (0-FFh)
 0Ch  RTC DH  Upper 1 bit of Day Counter, Carry Bit, Halt Flag
       Bit 0  Most significant bit of Day Counter (Bit 8)
       Bit 6  Halt (0=Active, 1=Stop Timer)
       Bit 7  Day Counter Carry Bit (1=Counter Overflow)

The Halt Flag is supposed to be set before <writing> to the RTC Registers.

The Day Counter

The total 9 bits of the Day Counter allow to count days in range from 0-511 (0-1FFh). The Day Counter Carry Bit becomes set when this value overflows. In that case the Carry Bit remains set until the program does reset it. Note that you can store an offset to the Day Counter in battery RAM. For example, every time you read a non-zero Day Counter, add this Counter to the offset in RAM, and reset the Counter to zero. This method allows to count any number of days, making your program Year-10000-Proof, provided that the cartridge gets used at least every 511 days.


When accessing the RTC Registers it is recommended to execute a 4ms delay (4 Cycles in Normal Speed Mode) between the separate accesses.

MBC5 (max 8MByte ROM and/or 128KByte RAM)

0000-3FFF - ROM Bank 00 (Read Only)

Same as for MBC1.

4000-7FFF - ROM Bank 00-1FF (Read Only)

Same as for MBC1, except that accessing up to bank 1E0h is supported now. Also, bank 0 is actually bank 0.

A000-BFFF - RAM Bank 00-0F, if any (Read/Write)

Same as for MBC1, except RAM sizes are 8KiB, 32KiB and 128KiB.

0000-1FFF - RAM Enable (Write Only)

Mostly the same as for MBC1, a value of 0Ah will enable reading and writing to external RAM. A value of 00h will disable it.

2000-2FFF - Low 8 bits of ROM Bank Number (Write Only)

The lower 8 bits of the ROM bank number goes here. Writing 0 will indeed give bank 0 on MBC5, unlike other MBCs.

3000-3FFF - High bit of ROM Bank Number (Write Only)

The 9th bit of the ROM bank number goes here.

4000-5FFF - RAM Bank Number (Write Only)

As for the MBC1s RAM Banking Mode, writing a value in range for 00h-0Fh maps the corresponding external RAM Bank (if any) into memory at A000-BFFF.

HuC1 (MBC with Infrared Controller)

This controller (made by Hudson Soft) appears to be very similar to an MBC1 with the main difference being that it supports infrared LED input / output. (Similiar to the infrared port that has been later invented in CGBs.)

The Japanese cart "Fighting Phoenix" (internal cart name: SUPER B DAMAN) is known to contain this chip.

Multicart MBCs

MBC1M uses the MBC1 IC, but the board does not connect the MBC1's A18 address output to the ROM. This allows including multiple 2 Mbit (16 bank) games, with SRAM bank select ($4000) to select which of up to four games is switched in. In theory, a MBC1M board could be made for 1 Mbit or 512 kbit games by additionally not connecting A17 and A16 outputs, but this appears not to have been done in licensed games.

MMM01 is a more complex that allows for games of different sizes Docs on

Bung and EMS MBCs are reported to exist.


PinoBatch learned the game selection protocol for EMS flash carts from beware, who in turn learned it from nitro2k01. Take this with a grain of salt, as it hasn't been verified on the authentic EMS hardware.

A header matching any of the following is detected as EMS mapper:

  • Header name is "EMSMENU", NUL-padded
  • Header name is "GB16M", NUL-padded
  • Cartridge type ($0147) = $1B and region ($014A) = $E1


$2000 write
Normal behavior, plus save written value in $2000 latch
$1000 write
$A5 enables configure mode, $98 disables, and other values have no known effect
$7000 write while configure mode is on
Copy $2000 latch to OR mask

After the OR mask has been set, all reads from ROM will OR A21-A14 (the bank number) with the OR mask. This chooses which game is visible to the CPU. If the OR mask is not aligned to the game size, the results may be nonsensical.

The mapper does not support an outer bank for battery SRAM.

To start a game, do the following in code run from RAM: Write $A5 to $1000, write game starting bank number to $2000, write any value to $7000, write $98 to $1000, write $01 to $2000 (so that 32K games work), jump to $0100.

Wisdom Tree

This is just a 32K ROM switch implemented with a latch on A7-A0 that goes to A22-A15. Unusually, it uses the address lines, not the data lines, to select a bank.

An emulator can detect a ROM designed for Wisdom Tree mapper in one of two ways:

  • $0147 = $00, $0148 = $00, size > 32k, ROM contains "WISDOM TREE" or "WISDOM\x00TREE" (the space can be $20 or $00)


$0000-$7FFF write
Select 32K bank at $0000-$7FFF based on A7-A0

Things that should be tested:

  • Does it respond to writes throughout $0000-$7FFF? It's simpler to do so, but at least one source speculates that only $0000-$3FFF actually work.
  • Does it always boot in the first bank, or does it boot in a random bank? If the latter, a multicart using this mapper would need to patch the $0100 entry point in all banks to jump to the menu.

Magic values for detection of multicarts in emulators

Sometimes it may be useful to allow a ROM to be detected as a multicart in emulator, for example for development of a menu for physical multicart hardware. These are values suggested by beware, and supported in BGB, for signaling that your ROM is supposed to interface a multicart mapper. Emulator authors who are interested in supporting multicart mappers are encouraged to support detection of these values in addition to the values described in each section, which are heuristics based on ROMs in the wild, which may not always be suitable for newly produced software. The values are deliberately chosen to be high entropy ("random") such that the risk of an accidental false positive is unlikely.

  • $0147 = $c0, $014a = $d1 -> Detect as Wisdom Tree
  • $0147 = $1b, $014a = $e1 -> Detect as EMS multicart
  • $0147 = $be -> Detect as Bung multicart

MBC Timing Issues

Among Nintendo MBCs, only the MBC5 is guaranteed by Nintendo to support the tighter timing of CGB Double Speed Mode. There have been rumours that older MBCs (like MBC1-3) wouldn't be fast enough in that mode. If so, it might be nevertheless possible to use Double Speed during periods which use only code and data which is located in internal RAM. However, despite of the above, a self-made MBC1-EPROM card appears to work stable and fine even in Double Speed Mode though.